Siemens Process Analytics Application Note
Fluidized-Bed Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is the most important and widely used refinery process for converting low value heavy oils into more valuable gasoline and lighter products.
The typical FCC process will convert 75% or more of the heavy oils to gasoline and lighter products. Originally, chemical cracking was accomplished by heating the oil to super high temperatures but the catalytic process has almost completely replaced thermal cracking.
The cracking process produces carbon (coke) which remains on the catalyst particle and rapidly lowers its activity. To maintain the catalyst activity at a usable level, it is necessary to regenerate the catalyst by burning off the coke with air. As a result, the catalyst is continuously moved from reactor to regenerator and back to reactor.
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